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A: All-terrain tires typically last around 40,000 miles, though some can last up to 60,000 miles, depending on the types of terrain that you use them on. Sampaguita, the national flower of Philippines, is grown in the tropics, mostly for its rich fragrance. The Philippine Trench (also called the Mindanao Trench) is a submarine trench 1,320 kilometers (820 mi) in length found directly east of the Philippine Mobile Belt and is the result of a collision of tectonic plates. , Southwest of the Zamboanga Peninsula is the Sulu Archipelago, a chain of islands which comprise the smaller archipelago provinces of Basilan, Sulu, and Tawi-Tawi.. The costs of these equipment vary based on kilowatt capacity. In the last decade, the Philippines has been hit severely by natural disasters. A dip-slip fault in which the block above the fault has moved downward relative to the block below. The longest river is the Cagayan River or Rio Grande de Cagayan in northern Luzon measuring 354 kilometers. The northwest ends at Calavite Point and is a landmark for ships. The island province of Marinduque prides itself as being the geographic center of the Philippines. It is the shelter that protects us from the sun, rain, and other elements. The southwest monsoon (from May to October) is known as the Habagat, and the dry winds of the northeast monsoon (from November to April), the Amihan. Provinces are further subdivided into component cities and municipalities, both of which consist of barangays, the smallest local government unit. it is very interesting Philippine history throughout the ages.  Around 20 earthquakes are registered daily, though most are too weak to be felt. Landclass (as it’s name suggests) is a definition of the terrain type. A home is one of the most important things that any person can have. 9522, "An Act to Define the Baselines of the Territorial Sea of the Philippines", describes an irregular polygon which fits within a box with its center at 121°44'47.45"E 12°46'6.1252"N, a point also roughly in the center of the Tablas Strait. The topography is extremely varied, with volcanic mountain masses forming the cores of most of the larger islands. Its design is a collaboration between the local architectural firm GF & Partners Architects and Gozar Planners Philippines in collaboration with the international firm Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates. Pulog (elevation 2,928 m/9,606 ft) in northern Luzon and in Mt. Hill terrain is a gently rising land while the mountain is a steeply rising ground. "Manila Bay:Environmental Challenges and Opportunities" in Wolanski, E.(ed.) In considering temperature, location in terms of latitude and longitude is not a significant factor. Terra not so firma, cuz I just learned the Philippine Sea Plate is oceanic in fact, and moving towards the Eurasian plate. Land preparation or Tillage practice is a very important practice to enhance good yield from crops grown. Browse Tires. , To the southeast of the main basin are two large valleys, the Koronadal and Allah valleys.  Other minerals include chromite, nickel, and zinc. Other extensive river systems are the Pulangi River, which flows into the Mindanao River (Rio Grande de Mindanao); the Agusan, in Mindanao which flows north into the Mindanao Sea; and the Pampanga, which flows south from east Central Luzon into Manila Bay. The following is a list of the most populous cities in the country, with their population according to the 2010 census. The Environment in Asia Pacific Harbours. The boundaries of the Philippine archipelago are described in Article III of the Treaty of Paris (1898), as comprising an irregular polygon. Territorial sea: irregular polygon extending up to 100 nautical miles (190 km; 120 mi) from coastline as defined by 1898 treaty; since late 1970s has also claimed polygonal-shaped area in South China Sea up to 285 nautical miles (528 km; 328 mi) in breadth. The mean annual rainfall of the Philippines varies from 965 to 4,064 millimeters annually. The northern Luzon highlands, or Cordillera Central, rise to between 2,500 meters (8,200 ft) and 2,750 meters (9,020 ft), and, together with the Sierra Madre in the northeastern portion of Luzon and the mountains of Mindanao, boast rain forests that provide refuge for numerous upland tribal groups. Brown represents the highest points of the country, including the Sierra Madre, the cordillera Central, and the Zambales Mountains. You might want to check out the hottest Car Tyres like the Goodyear Eagle F1, Goodyear Eagle F1 205/55/R16 and YOKOHAMA BluEarth E70 Tyre.  The second highest point can be found on Luzon at Mount Pulag, a peak 2,842 meters (9,324 ft) above sea level. The Philippines is an archipelago that comprises 7,641 islands with a total land area of 300,000 square kilometers (115,831 sq mi). The two largest islands, Luzon in the north and Mindanao in the south, account for 65% of the total land area and contain 60% of the country's population. A democratic republic located in the Western Pacific Ocean, the Republic of the Philippines is made up of the Philippine Islands and is the island group at the northernmost part of the Malay Archipelago. This makes it the 5th largest island countryin the world. Menchie.  The country is thought to have the second-largest gold deposits after South Africa, along with a large amount of copper deposits. The average annual temperature of Baguio at an elevation of 1,500 meters (4,900 ft) above sea level is 18.3 °C (64.9 °F), making it a popular destination during hot summers. In most cases, many people choose Car Tyres from brands like Mr Offset ® Wheel Fitment Solutions, Wanli and Madtracks Auto Center in Philippines. Maphill is more than just a map gallery. The Philippines, with a total population of approximately 104.9 million as of July 2017, is a nation made up of more than 7,100 islands located in Southeastern Asia, between the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea, to the east of Vietnam. Such cities are designated as "regional centers". Manila is the capital, but nearby Quezon City is the country’s most-populous city. Forming the regions, with the exception of the National Capital, are the 81 provinces. The islands typically have narrow coastal plains and numerous swift-running streams. Geography. The detailed terrain map represents one of many map types and styles available. presenting The Durable Sinomach Cranes. The Cordilleras and Caraballos, together with the Sierra Madre Range, form the main mountain system in Northern Luzon. Most government offices establish regional offices in a city to serve the constituent provinces.  Only approximately 1,000 of its islands are populated, and fewer than one-half of these are larger than 2.5 square kilometers (1 sq mi). Apo, the highest point in the Philippines (elevation 2,954 m/9,692 ft), in Mindanao. Component cities and municipalities of Metro Manila, Metro Cebu, and Metro Davao are taken as one to show the extent of urbanization. , To the west of the Pacific Cordillera lies an extensive lowland, the Davao-Agusan Trough. The Philippines has a tropical maritime climate that is usually hot and humid. The Philippines was never connected to mainland, These formerly linked islands each constitute a separate ecoregion, as does, Each group of islands that were linked by land bridges in the ice ages also constitutes a separate faunal region. Within the plateau lies the country's second largest lake, Lake Lanao situated at an elevation of 2,296 feet, drained by the Agus River flowing northward to its river mouth at Iligan Bay. These are especially hazardous for northern and eastern Luzon and the Bicol and Eastern Visayas regions, but Manila gets devastated periodically as well. It also relies on its 18 major river basins and 421 principle river basins. That makes it approximately the same size as Italy but comparison stops there because when it comes to population, there are almost twice as much people in the Philippines. To some extent, this is a normal pattern: the ocean surfa… Today, we are going to discuss the land preparation types, methods, and objectives.  Romblon island is a source of high-quality marble. 0% Installment Plan. The Philippines lie off the southeast coast of Asia between Taiwan and Borneo in the Pacific Ocean and South China Sea. Mount Mayon is renowned for having an almost perfect cone, but has a violent history of 47 eruptions since 1616 and its VEI-4 eruption on June 23, 1897 rained fire for seven days. We offer a wide range of high performance car tires, SUV, passenger and 4x4 tires online. It measures up to 2,954 meters (9,692 ft) above sea level and is located on the island of Mindanao. Despite this, a lack of law enforcement, poor management, opposition due to the presence of indigenous communities, and past instances of environmental damages and disasters, have resulted in these mineral resources remaining largely untapped.. The first soil survey in the Philippines was done by Mr. Clarence Dorsey, an American soil scientist in the province of Batangas in 1903. The Philippines’ economic freedom score is 64.5, making its economy the 70th freest in the 2020 Index. Jacinto, G.S., Azanza, R.V.,Velasquez,I.B. Among the most notable peaks are Mount Mayon near Legazpi City, Taal Volcano south of Manila, and Mount Apo in Mindanao. The Mindanao islands include Mindanao itself, Dinagat, Siargao, Camiguin, Samal, plus the Sulu Archipelago, composed primarily of Basilan, Sulu, and Tawi-Tawi. They, together with the cluster of islands in Visayas in between them, represent the three principal regions of the archipelago that are identified by the three stars on the Philippine flag. The archipelago is around 800 kilometers (500 mi) from the Asian mainland and is located between Taiwan and Borneo. The Philippine Sea Plate is subducting under the Philippine Mobile Belt at the rate of about 16 centimeters (6.3 in) per year. The Philippines forms a link in the major folding chains that meander and arc between the Asian mainland and the Pacific. The Cordilleras consists of two, sometimes three, mountain ranges that are found in northwestern central Luzon. Philippines is one source of such knowledge and information. The Philippines' foremost supplier of heavy equipment & engineering tools. The Visayas is the group of islands in the central Philippines, the largest of which are: Panay, Negros, Cebu, Bohol, Leyte, Samar, Siquijor, Biliran, and Guimaras.  Palladium, originally discovered in South America, was found to have the world's largest deposits in the Philippines too. Kalayaan is a Filipino word meaning "freedom". Good Building Design and Construction Handbook Page 5 Republic Act No.  Historically typhoons were sometimes referred to as baguios. 1 decade ago. Geography of the Philippines. The islands are of volcanic origin, with the larger ones crossed by mountain range… Caraballo Occidentalles, is further divided into two ranges, the Cordillera Norte and Cordillera Central. Below is an index map for topographic maps at scale 1:50,000. Only about 7% of the islands are larger than one square mile, and only one-third have names. The Philippines relies on various sources of water for drinking, including rainfall, lakes, reservoirs and groundwater resources. km. A quadripoint is a point on the Earth that touches four distinct regions.  Subic Bay, the Davao Gulf, and the Moro Gulf are other important bays. Find the right tire for you at Goodyear Tires Philippines. The Philippines is prone to about six to nine storms which make landfall each year, on average. and other parts in western-central Mindanao. The Philippines also has some of the most spectacular beaches to be found in the South Pacific. The island nation is situated south of Taiwan, between the South China Sea in the west and the Pacific Ocean in the east. They are composed of 7,107 islands and islets (7,108 at low tide), 2,773 of which are named. The regions themselves do not possess a separate local government, with the exception of the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region. 2D 4; 3D 4; Panoramic 4; Location 9; Simple ; Detailed 4; Road Map. To the east of the lake is a plain that stretches westward to the Manila Bay. The NTMS maps are in 15' x 15' interval and elevation are expressed in 20-meter contour line intervals. Large rivers from bays and mountain springs traverse the plain. As the country is made up of over 7,000 islands, there is also a lot of lower-elevation areas along the coast. ... Would like to have a section about there diet, housing, transportation, types of energy used, etc. That’s when the tropical storms and cyclones like to roll in, destroy things and kill people. Annual Survey of Philippine Business and Industry (ASPBI) Census of Philippine Business and Industry (CPBI) Tourism . However, illegal logging has reduced forest cover to less than 10% of the total land area. Land preparation types, and techniques in agriculture. The Philippines is part of the Indomalaya ecozone, and its flora and fauna is mostly derived from tropical Asia. Find tires. Search. Even at this time, however, temperatures rarely rise above 37 °C (98.6 °F).  The Galathea Depth in the Philippine Trench is the deepest point in the country and the third deepest in the world. The Philippines lie off the southeast coast of Asia between Taiwan and Borneo in the Pacific Ocean and South China Sea. This gives it the fifth longest coastline of 36,289 kilometers (22,549 mi) in the world. The Philippines is a vibrant democracy, as evidenced by 12 English national newspapers, 7 national television stations, hundreds of cable TV stations, and 2,000 radio stations. Brown represents the highest points of the country, including the Sierra Madre, the cordillera Central, and the Zambales Mountains. The Philippine islands are an archipelago of over 7,000 islands lying about 500 mi (805 km) off the southeast coast of Asia. The Philippines is the third largest English speaking country in the world. The Philippines is a country with a long history of colonization, strongly influencing its culture and traditions.This impact extends well beyond language and food and into the many superstitions that locals take to heart. Each province has a capital city or municipality. Through its center runs the country's longest river, the Cagayan, flowing in a northward direction before emptying its waters in the Luzon Strait at the town of Aparri. Off the coast of eastern Mindanao is the Philippine Trench, which descends to a depth of 10,430 meters (34,220 ft). The Philippine Sea Plate is subducting under the Philippine Mobile Belt at the rate of about 16 centimeters (6.3 in) per year. The second highest point can be found on Luzon.  The Philippines is the world's second-biggest geothermal energy producer behind the United States, with 18% of the country's electricity needs being met by geothermal power.. The river flows in a northward direction and empties into the Butuan Bay. Here's a detailed look at the prominent attributes and uses of this intoxicating flower. Pulog (elevation 2,928 m/9,606 ft) in northern Luzon and in Mt. It is limited to mountain peaks with, if known, an elevation of at least 200 metres (660 feet) above sea level, and may include those considered as hills. Before you buy a vehicle or use it for trailering, carefully review the trailering section of the Owner’s Manual. Discover the beauty hidden in the maps. CITY AND NEIGHBORHOOD GUIDES. Philippines - Philippines - Plant and animal life: Although many of the mountain regions and some of the lowlands remain heavily forested, the country’s forests have been shrinking rapidly for decades. 74. jessie pepito. The Caraballos (Caraballo de Baler) start where the Sierra Madre and the Cordilleras meet. In the Philippines, about 5.49 million ha or roughly 18 percent of the total land area are still covered with forests. It covers the whole Philippines in 672 sheets. It is one of the measures used to control crop diseases and pest invasion. Closed terrariums need less watering because the moisture is locked inside to create a miniature greenhouse. The Geology of the Philipines is comprised of geologic processes results of very complex geology. They are composed of 7,107 islands and islets (7,108 at low tide), 2,773 of which are named. The CIA Factbook locates the Philippines at 13°N 122°E.. Tires. The chain of mountain ranges in this region is called Zamboanga Cordilleras, with the highest elevation at Mount Dapi, which is 2,617 meters (8,586 ft) high. View Products. The Philippine archipelago is divided into three Island groups: Luzon, the Visayas, and Mindanao. The lack of a land bridge to the Asian continent prevented most of the Asian megafauna, including elephants, rhinoceros, tapirs, tigers, leopards, and gibbons, from reaching the Philippines, although they do inhabit the adjacent Indonesian islands of Sundaland, which were formerly linked to the Asian continent by lowered sea levels. The Philippines is a signatory to the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD) which lays the Internationally accepted standards on the protection of the rights and welfare of Indigenous Peoples in the conservation of natural resources within their territories. There are few large plains or navigable rivers. Mayon has a violent history of 47 eruptions since 1616 and another violent eruption is currently feared. Mean annual sea-level temperatures rarely fall below 27 °C (80.6 °F). The range culminates in Mt. Climate: The Philippines has a tropical marine climate, with the northeast monsoon, which produces a cool, dry season from December to February, and the southwest monsoon, which brings rain and high temperatures from May to October. All popular body types are available from sedans, crossovers, hatchbacks, pick up trucks and SUVS. 75. Still more damaging was the 1990 earthquake that devastated a wide area in Luzon, including Baguio and other northern areas. Manila and most of the lowland areas are hot and dusty from March to May. Taal Volcano, also located on Luzon, is one of the Decade Volcanoes. The Philippines that we know now is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia that lays in a total area of 300,000 sq. Outstanding physical features of the Philippines include the irregular configuration of the archipelago, the coastline of some 22,550 miles (36,290 km), the great extent of mountainous country, the narrow and interrupted coastal plains, the generally northward trend of the river systems, and the spectacular lakes. As the country is made up of over 7,000 islands, there is also a lot of lower-elevation areas along the coast. The Philippines is divided into a hierarchy of local government units (LGUs) with the 81 provinces and 38 independent cities as the primary unit. The Philippines remains to be dependent on imported electro-mechanical equipment for micro-hydro projects. The highest point in the country is the peak of Mount Apo in Mindanao, which is 2,954 meters (9,692 ft) above sea level. These variations are due to the extremely arid climate found in a desert terrain; these variations also affect the desert topography over time. Mayon has a violent history of 47 eruptions since 1616 and another violent eruption is currently feared. Whether in the extreme north, south, east, or west of the country, temperatures at sea level tend to be in the same range. The Philippine archipelago is one of the world’s great reservoirs of biodiversity and endemism. The lack of a land bridge to the Asian continent prevented most of the Asian, Pencak Silat Gadjah Putih (Silat Sunda Institute), Majapahit Martial Arts (Inosanto Academy). The Philippine Archipelago is geologically part of the Philippine Mobile Belt located between the Philippine Sea Plate, the South China Sea Basin of the Eurasian Plate, and the Sunda Plate. Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling, Signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Four provinces in Mindanao meet at a point at the summit of, This page was last edited on 24 January 2021, at 17:20. Faults are subdivided according to the movement of the two blocks. The remaining old growth, or primary dipterocarp forests, comprises only about 0.804 million ha, far from the 12 million ha of old-growth forest that existed 55 years ago (Igsoc 1999). Annual rainfall measures as much as 5,000 millimeters (196.9 in) in the mountainous east coast section of the country, but less than 1,000 millimeters (39.4 in) in some of the sheltered valleys. Many volcanoes in the country are active, the most recent eruption being that of Mount Pinatubo on Luzon in 1991. Look at Manila, Ncr, Philippines from different perspectives. Surrounded by three mountain ranges, the basin's only opening to the sea is to the northwest at Illana Bay, where the Mindanao River empties into the ocean. , The north-central portion of Mindanao is dominated by an extensive highland region, the Bukidnon-Lanao Plateau, which includes the Kitanglad and Kalatungan mountain ranges. The highest point in the country is the peak of, , which is 2,954 meters (9,692 ft) above sea level. Most of terrain’s vessels are open terrariums, which require natural light as well as adequate watering and drainage. Mount Pinatubo is notorious for its destructive VEI-6 eruption on June 15, 1991. Draining the southern portion of the lowland are several other rivers, which include the Tagum, flowing southward to the Davao Gulf. Multico Prime Power Inc. is the exclusive distributor of recognizable engineering & heavy equipment brands such as Weycor, Sinomach, Rubble Master and many more. There are four recognized climate types in the Philippines, and they are based on the distribution of rainfall. The rain forests also offer prime habitat for more than 500 species of birds, including the Philippine eagle (or monkey-eating eagle), some 1,100 species of orchids, and some 8,500 species of flowering plants. The first, called Caraballo del Sur, forms the nucleus of the system and has its highest peaks in the border between the provinces of Abra, Ilocos Norte and Cagayan. To the east of the range are narrow strips of lowland that feature several inlets and bays, the most prominent of which include the Lianga and Bislig bays. The plains encompass the provinces of Bulacan, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Tarlac and Pangasinan. Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow to extensive coastal lowlands . The Philippines is located in the western Pacific Ocean, surrounded by naturally warm waters that will likely get even warmer as average sea-surface temperatures continue to rise. Oasis is a flat desert located near water, steppe is a cold desert, and a desert is a sandy and arid ground. Such points are often called "four corners", from the corners of the four regions meeting there. The ecoregions of the Philippines are defined primarily by the sea levels during the Ice Ages, which were 120 meters lower than at present, as billions of gallons of water were locked away in huge continental ice sheets. The second highest point can be found on Luzon at Mount Pulog, a peak 2,842 meters (9,324 ft) above sea level. Destination Philippines, a Nations Online Project Country Profile of the archipelago in Maritime Southeast Asia. The Philippine Fault System consists of a series of seismic faults that produce several earthquakes per year, most of which are not felt. km. South of the Central Luzon plains lies the largest inland freshwater lake in Southeast Asia, the Laguna de Bay. Several rivers have been harnessed for hydroelectric power. The island geography of the Philippines includes about 21,000 miles of natural coastline. Most of the population is concentrated on the northern and eastern coast of this island where the city of Calapan and Puerto Galera are located. The Philippines is broken up in many islands by the sea.  There are many active volcanoes such as the Mayon Volcano, Mount Pinatubo, and Taal Volcano. The common ones are plateau, mountain, plain, and valley terrains. Rainfall distribution throughout the country varies from one region to another, depending upon the direction of the moisture-bearing winds and the location of the mountain systems. Western Luzon is known for its beaches, surf spots and historic towns. The transformation sub-system: cultivation to market size in fishponds", "Member Report to the ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee, 41st Session", "Tropical Cyclone Disasters in the Philippines A Listing of Major Typhoons by Month Through 1979", Impact of Climate Change on ASEAN International Affairs: Risk and Opportunity Multiplier, Regional Tourism Stakeholders to meet in Marinduque, STATE OF THE PROVINCE ADDRESS of Gov.JOSE ANTONIO N. CARRION, GOVERNOR OF MARINDUQUE, Treaty of Peace Between the United States and Spain, Government Portal of the Republic of the Philippines, An act to amend section one of republic act numbered thirty hundred and forty-six, entitled "An act to define the baselines of the territorial sea of the Philippines", National Intelligence Coordinating Agency, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Geography_of_the_Philippines&oldid=1002478476, Articles lacking reliable references from July 2020, Articles with dead external links from February 2018, Articles with dead external links from July 2020, Articles with failed verification from July 2020, All Wikipedia articles written in Philippine English, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2021, Articles to be expanded from January 2016, Articles with empty sections from January 2016, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2010, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from December 2009, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the Library of Congress Country Studies, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Total: 300,000 square kilometres (115,831 sq mi), Land: 298,170 square kilometres (115,124 sq mi), Water: 1,830 square kilometres (707 sq mi), Continental shelf: to depth of exploitation. The other main factor that defines the Philippine ecoregions is elevation; the high mountains of Luzon and Mindanao host distinct montane rain forest ecoregions. Several tall mountains, such as Mount Apo, the country's highest are found within the range. The Philippines may be viewed as a collage of metamorphic terranes, magmatic arcs, ophiolitic complexes, sedimentary basins, and a continental block of Eurasian affinity subjected to tectonic processes. Building construction is undertaken with natural disasters in mind. Exclusive economic zone of the Philippines, Administrative divisions of the Philippines, Provinces of the Philippines § List of provinces, Learn how and when to remove this template message, National Mapping and Resource Information Authority, List of cities and municipalities in the Philippines, List of active volcanoes in the Philippines, List of potentially active volcanoes in the Philippines, List of inactive volcanoes in the Philippines, "Philippine Population Density (Based on the 2015 Census of Population)", "World Development Indicators - DataBank", "Namria discovers 400 to 500 new islands in PHL archipelago", "Land Use and Land Classification of the Philippines", "Assessment of the Effectiveness and Efficiency of the Cadastral Survey Program of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR)", "U.S. report details rich resources in South China Sea. Find the best property for you and your loved ones with this handy guide. The, Many volcanoes in the country are active, the most recent eruption being that of. It is an archipelago consisting of some 7,100 islands and islets lying about 500 miles (800 km) off the coast of Vietnam. Four distinct geographic divisions converging at a single point is not uncommon in the Philippines, and there are other points of convergence between five or more divisions that can be found. The Apo Reef, also considered as the second largest atoll-like reef in the Philippines comprises of two isolated coral reefs that are disconnected by a 30-meter deep channel.  It is the world's 5th largest island country. At the northwestern tip of Mindanao is the generally mountainous Zamboanga Peninsula. They are described as follows: Type I.. Two pronounced season: dry from November to April and wet during the rest of the year. Spain's colonization brought about the construction of Intramuros in 1571, a "Walled City" comprised of European buildings and churches, replicated in different parts of the archipelago. Apo, the highest point in the Philippines (elevation 2,954 m/9,692 ft), in Mindanao. Landslides occur everywhere in the world, but the danger of rainfall-induced slides tends to be much greater in tropical mountainous regions like those in the Philippines, Central and South America, and southeastern Asia. They are found south of Cagayan Valley, northeast of the Central Luzon Plains. This list contains most of the highest mountains in the country.  The Benham Plateau to the east in the Philippine Sea is an undersea region active in tectonic subduction. Most of the Malesian flora is derived from tropical Asia, including the dipterocarps, which are the characteristic tree of the Philippine forests. 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